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road or traffic conditions are poor, double
your following distance.

Off-tracking

In any vehicle where the rear axle cannot
steer during a turn, the rear tires will follow
a different path than the steering tires. This
is called off-tracking. There are two types
of off-tracking:
1 Low speed off-tracking is common when
†† driving in a city. In low or moderate speed
†† turns, the rear tires are pulled inward
†† of the steering path. The longer the
†† wheelbase of the vehicle or the tighter the
†† turn, the more off-tracking occurs.
2 High speed off-tracking is the effect of
†† centrifugal (outward) force. It is seen when
†† a vehicle travels at higher speeds, and the
†† rear tires pull outward from the steering
†† path during a turn. When you are driving
†† a large vehicle, use a moderate speed
†† when entering curves on open highways.
†† Otherwise, you may encounter serious
†† high-speed off-tracking that may result in
†† a dangerous situation.

Turns

It takes different skills and knowledge to
turn a large vehicle compared to turning
a passenger vehicle. To start, have a look
at the general turn rules that are explained
in the Driverís Guide to Operation, Safety
and Licensing book. Remember the offtracking
tendencies of the large vehicle,
and that it has a wider turning radius.
The hand-over-hand steering method is
recommended. Always use both hands to
steer the vehicle. Select the appropriate
gear before starting the turn unless the
vehicle has an automatic transmission.

RIGHT TURNS†

††
††

Be aware that, for every turn of the
steering wheel, the rear wheels will follow
a shorter path than the front wheels. Allow
for this low speed off-tracking on every
turn. Otherwise, your vehicle could hit
another vehicle, or stationary object, or run
over a curb and hit a pedestrian.
If the street is narrow, drive well into the
intersection before starting the turn. You
might need to go over the centre line of the
street you are entering or into the second
traffic lane. Whenever making a turn, be
cautious and ensure it can be done safely.
Look for smaller vehicles and cyclists
that may try to pull along the right side of
your tractor-trailer during the turn.


††

48†† †A Commercial Driverís Guide to Operation, Safety and Licensing

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