Many factors affect your stopping time
and distance. These include road and
weather conditions. Some factors you
can control are:
• your visual search skills as you scan
the roadway ahead
• your decision-making ability
• your alertness and level of fatigue
• your use of alcohol or other drugs
• your vehicle’s speed
• the condition of your vehicle’s brakes
• When stopping, begin braking early.
If you brake too late, your braking
distance may not be sufficient.
• Release pressure on the accelerator
before applying the brake to reduce
• To finish braking smoothly, release
pressure on the brake pedal slightly
and then reapply pressure on the
pedal just before you come to a stop.
• If you must stop quickly, use
threshold braking. This is applying
the brakes without locking the wheels.
This is where braking efficiency is at
its maximum while still allowing you to
steer your vehicle. If the wheels lock,
release your pressure on the brake
pedal slightly. Applying the brakes
hard enough to lock the wheels will
cause a loss of steering control. For
vehicles with anti-lock brakes (ABS),
see information in Chapter 6 under
All reversing must be done at a
crawl or slow walking speed. Before
reversing, look behind the vehicle and
only drive in reverse when your path
is clear of traffic, pedestrians and
obstacles. Before reversing out of a
driveway, walk around the vehicle and
check for possible dangers behind the
To reverse in a straight line, do
• Place your left hand at the top of
the steering wheel and shift slightly
onto your right hip. For support, place
your right hand on the back of the
• Look over your right shoulder through
the rear window. Reverse slowly while
covering your brake pedal.
• Glance to the front to be sure that
the front of the vehicle does not
• To correct your steering, turn the
steering wheel no more than a quarter
turn in the same direction that you want
the rear of your vehicle to go.
When reversing to the left or right, do
• Use both hands on the steering wheel
at about 9 and 3 o’clock if you need to
turn more than one-half turn.
• To reverse to the left, look over your
left shoulder with frequent glances to
• To reverse to the right, look over your
right shoulder with frequent glances to
• Turn the steering wheel in the direction
you want the rear of the vehicle to go.