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Many factors affect your stopping time
and distance. These include road and
weather conditions. Some factors you
can control are:
• your visual search skills as you scan
   the roadway ahead
• your decision-making ability
• your alertness and level of fatigue
• your use of alcohol or other drugs
• your vehicle’s speed
• the condition of your vehicle’s brakes
   and tires

Braking

• When stopping, begin braking early.
   If you brake too late, your braking
   distance may not be sufficient.
• Release pressure on the accelerator
   before applying the brake to reduce
   your speed.
• To finish braking smoothly, release
   pressure on the brake pedal slightly
   and then reapply pressure on the
   pedal just before you come to a stop.
• If you must stop quickly, use
   threshold braking. This is applying
   the brakes without locking the wheels.
   This is where braking efficiency is at
   its maximum while still allowing you to
   steer your vehicle. If the wheels lock,
   release your pressure on the brake
   pedal slightly. Applying the brakes
   hard enough to lock the wheels will
   cause a loss of steering control. For
   vehicles with anti-lock brakes (ABS),
   see information in Chapter 6 under
   emergency braking.  

Reversing

All reversing must be done at a
crawl or slow walking speed.
Before
reversing, look behind the vehicle and
only drive in reverse when your path
is clear of traffic, pedestrians and
obstacles. Before reversing out of a
driveway, walk around the vehicle and
check for possible dangers behind the
vehicle.

To reverse in a straight line, do
the following:
• Place your left hand at the top of
   the steering wheel and shift slightly
   onto your right hip. For support, place
   your right hand on the back of the
   passenger seat.
• Look over your right shoulder through
   the rear window. Reverse slowly while
   covering your brake pedal.
• Glance to the front to be sure that
   the front of the vehicle does not
   contact anything.
• To correct your steering, turn the
   steering wheel no more than a quarter
   turn in the same direction that you want
   the rear of your vehicle to go.

When reversing to the left or right, do
the following:
• Use both hands on the steering wheel
   at about 9 and 3 o’clock if you need to
   turn more than one-half turn.
• To reverse to the left, look over your
   left shoulder with frequent glances to
   the front.
• To reverse to the right, look over your
   right shoulder with frequent glances to
   the front.
• Turn the steering wheel in the direction
   you want the rear of the vehicle to go.
 

48  A Driver's Guide to Operation, Safety and Licensing

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